The modern world has been politically influenced in no small part by the battles that took place in the Middle Ages. Of all the weapons that soldiers took to the field, the sword is inarguably the most celebrated. Here are a few types of medieval swords.
The One-handed Sword was among the most common swords in the early medieval period and was typically accompanied by a shield or dagger. These swords probably originated from the Roman Spatha. The Cutting Sword was another popular weapon, used extensively by early medieval Knights and the Vikings as well. They were very good slashing tools but became ineffective as body armor evolved.
Then there was the Falchion, a one-handed sword that featured a curved blade. These were popular among the Crusaders. The origin of this sword is debatable but it could have been inspired by farmer tools and knives. The Saracens, who fought against the Crusaders for the Holy Land, wielded the Scimitar, a sword with a curved blade and a sharp point.
By the 14th century, armor had become much better. There was a need for a heavier, more powerful sword that could be effective against well-protected Knights. Enter the Hand-and-a-half Sword. It was light enough to use with one hand but had a handle that facilitated the use of both hands, which generated more power. Great swords were longer and heavier than the Hand-and-a-half Sword. These weapons were effective against pikes and were used in the High Middle Ages and the Renaissance, though their most basic version could be traced back to the early medieval period where they were known as War Swords.